Jonathan S. Linen has been an advisor to the Chairman of American Express Company since January 2006. From August 1993 until December 2005, he served as Vice Chairman of American Express Company. From 1992 to 1993, Mr. Linen served as President and Chief Operating Officer of American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc. From 1989 to 1992, Mr. Linen served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Shearson Lehman Brothers. Mr. Linen is a director of Modern Bank, N.A. and The Intercontinental Hotels Group. He serves as a Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the U.S.-Japan Business Council, Chairman of the International Golf Association, a Member of the Board of Governors of the American Red Cross. He serves on a number of US Councils and advisory boards. He serves as an Honorary Member of the Board of Trustees of the National Urban League and the U.S. Council for International Business, and serves as a Member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He is a graduate of both The Gunnery School in 1962 and a B.A. from Williams College 1966. Mr. Linen also graduated from the Management Development Program at Harvard Business School.